Mussolini began as a socialist. But the First World War transformed him. He became a leader of disgruntled veterans and a champion of military discipline. Opposing both capitalism and communism, he fashioned a new ideology which advocated the militarization of society under a supreme leader. Marching on Rome he seized power in 1922. The fascist Italy he created lasted until 1945. During that time he became Il Duce (The Leader), went to war with Ethiopia, became an ally of Hitler and suffered a humiliating defeat. His story is fascinating.